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Nuclear energy in Slovakia (02.03.2023)

• In Slovakia, four pressurised water reactors (PWRs) generate more than half of the total amount of electricity.

• The share of nuclear in the energy mix is to remain roughly the same, while it is intended to replace fossil fuels primarily by renewables.

• Two units are currently under construction, one of which is scheduled to go into operation at the
beginning of 2023.

Status quo of electricity generation

Electricity Generation in Slovakia 2020
Strommix Slowakei im Jahr 2020

Currently, two VVER-440 units of the 213 type are operated at each of the sites in Bohunice (since the mid-1980s) and Mochovce (since the late 1990s). Together they generate more than half of the 28.6 TWh generated annually in Slovakia.

The plants are owned and operated by Slovenské Elektrárne (SE). SE, in turn, is 34% owned by the state and 66% by Slovak Power Holding BV (SPH).

The share of renewables in the energy mix in Slovakia is around a quarter, while fossil fuels play a relatively minor role with around 20%. For a long time mainly an exporter of electricity, the country has tended to rely more on imports since the shutdown of two
VVER-440/230 units at the Bohunice site.

Political and legal framework conditions

The current strategy assumes a reduction of the share of fossil sources by approx. 50% in favour of renewable energies (wind), whereby the share of nuclear energy is to remain largely constant. The National Energy Strategy of 2014 includes the construction of a new plant at the Bohunice site as another option in addition to the completed construction of Mochovce 3 and 4. According to the environmental impact assessment report for the new construction of Bohunice 5, installed capacities in the range between 1,200 and 1,700 MW are possible.

On 15 February 2023, JESS – a joint venture between the Slovak radioactive waste management company JAVYS (51%) and the Czech utility ČEZ (49%) – submitted a siting permit application for a fifth unit at the Bohunice site to the Slovakian Nuclear Regulation Authority (ÚJD). ÚJD now has one year to decide on the application. As a next step, JESS plans to apply for a construction licence for the plant by the end of 2025.

Slovakia's Minister of Economy stated in March 2022 that the uranium deposit in the east of the country could be a solution to nuclear fuel independence. According to the minister, Slovakia has two substantial uranium deposits – one of which is Kurišková – whose reserves were sufficient for long-term domestic fuel needs. At present, the NPPs are supplied entirely with fresh nuclear fuel entirely from Russia.

Current plans and projects

NPPs in Slovakia

Large NPPs. Units 3 and 4 at the Bohunice NPP have already exceeded their design lifetime of 30 years. A programme for lifetime extension has been implemented for both units, which started in 2011.

The operator of the plants plans to operate the units at the Bohunice site until 2044 and 2045, respectively, and the units at the Mochovce site until 2058 and 2060, respectively.

At present, there is a current but long-running new NPP construction project in the Slovak Republic, namely the completion of the two VVER 440/W-213 units 3 and 4 located at the Mochovce site, the construction of which was frozen in 1992 due to a lack of financial resources. Construction work was resumed in 2008. On 2 February 2023, Unit 3 was connected to the Slovak grid for the first time and is expected to enter commercial operation soon. Unit 4 is to follow in 2024.



Country profile “Slovakia” of the World Nuclear Association
Data and statistics “Slovak Republic” of the IEA
Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) of the IAEA